Myopia References

There have been multitudes of studies in the past decades dedicated to the prevention and control of myopia. With all the research in the area there are many differing opinions about the most effective means of controlling its development and progression. The below is a synopsis of the research out there to give you all the information you need to formulate your own evidence backed opinions:

Bruce H. Koffler. (2012) The Case for Myopia Control Now. Refractive Eyecare November 2012

In this article Orthokeratology is discussed as an effective means of controlling the progression of myopia. Koffler compares this procedure with the use of atropine, which works by preventing excessive accommodation that may lead to further myopia. In summary Orthokeratology is found to be the safer and more effective means of slowing myopia prevention in children.

D.I. Flitcroft. (2012) The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. (ABSTRACT) JProgress in Retinal and Eye Research VOL 31 (2012) 622-660 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2012.06.004

This article calls for further research and intervention into the area of Myopia. As well as discussing the issues that can arise with untreated progressive myopia, Filtcroft delves into the environmental influences of myopia.

Jeffrey Cooper, Erica Schulman and Nadine Jamal. (2012) Current Status on the Development and Treatment of Myopia. (FULL TEXT) Optometry – Journal of the American Optometric Association Vos 83, No. 5, May 2012.

This article explores the benefits of atropine, an anti-muscarinic, in slowing the progression of myopia. While orthokeratology is discussed as the current standard, atropine is used as an effective comparison that in low doses is able to slow myopia with little side effects.

Jeffrey J Walline, Kristina Lindsley, Satyanarayana S Vedula, Susan A Cotter, Donald O Mutti, J. Daniel Twelker. (2011) Interventions to slow progression of myopia in children. (ABSTRACT) The Cochrane Library Published Online 7 Dec 2011 doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004916.pub3

This article takes the reader on an evidence based jouney through all the means of myopia control. The main clinical treatments discussed are atropine, orthokeratology and bifocal type soft contact lenses. Of all treatments, when tracking through the studies, atropine came out on top as the most effective treatment while orthokeratology and bifocal contact lenses were summarised as “promising”.

Siegwart, John T. Jr*; Norton, Thomas T.(2011) Perspective: How Might Emmetropization and Genetic Factors Produce Myopia in Normal Eyes? (FULL TEXT) Optometry & Vision Science March 2011 – Volume 88 – Issue 3 – pp E365-E372 doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e31820b053d

Emmetropization is the process by which a child’s eyes progresses (with age) from being long sighted (i.e short axial length) to emmetropic, where the refractive power of the cornea and the axial length of the eye balance out. This article explores reasons behind why emmetropization does not always occur.

Earl L. Smith III, Donald O. Mutti.(2011) Contact Lenses and Myopia Control: Evidence Versus Hype. (FULL TEXT) Contact Lens Spectrum June 2011

This article explores controlling myopia by correcting peripheral defocus. Arguments for and against this theory are presented with the two sides leaving it to the reader to decide on what they believe to be most effective.

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