Nystagmus is an involuntary movement of the eye, from side to side in a swinging motion. These movements are usually jerking or jiggling “to and fro” or up and down.
- Manifest Nystagmus
- Congenital Nystagmus
- Manifest-latent Nystagmus
- Acquired Nystagmus
- Latent Nystagmus
Congenital Nystagmus onset in the first few months of age. Most common nystagmus is congenital, where both eyes move together and oscillate like a pendulum. Many people with congential mystagmus have a “null zone” meaning a position of gaze when the eyes moves the least and vision is clear, with a face turn. For example, if the eyes moves the least when looking to the left, the person will tend to turn their face to the right.
Manifest Nystagmus is present at all times.
Latent Nystagmus occurs when an eye is covered.
Manifest-latent Nystagmus is similar to the above, except they’re always present, but get worse when one eye is deprived.
Acquired Nystagmus onset is after 6 months of age. It can have many etiologies. It can be associated with serious medical conditions, head trauma, or a neurological problem.